The Dry Eye Zone

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ABSTRACT: Alterations in Tear Biochemistry Associated with Postanesthetic Chronic Dry Eye Syndrome.


Biochemistry (Mosc). 2016 Dec;81(12):1549-1557. doi: 10.1134/S0006297916120166.
Zernii EY1, Golovastova MO, Baksheeva VE, Kabanova EI, Ishutina IE, Gancharova OS, Gusev AE, Savchenko MS, Loboda AP, Sotnikova LF, Zamyatnin AA Jr, Philippov PP, Senin II.

Abstract
Perioperative dry eye syndrome (DES) is a common ocular complication of long-term general anesthesia. Chronic DES can lead to permanent damage to the cornea and disturbance of visual function, up to total loss of vision. Here, a relationship between the duration of general anesthesia and the risk of chronic DES in patients was demonstrated. Using an experimental model of perioperative corneal abrasions in rabbits, it was found that introduction of animals to 3-h general anesthesia resulted in clinically significant chronic damage to the cornea in 50% of cases. The development of the complication was not associated with irreversible or long-term impairment of tear secretion, but it was accompanied by a decrease in tear film stability and growth of the total protein content as well as decrease in total antioxidant activity of the tear induced by low molecular weight antioxidants. In addition, anesthesia-induced changes in activity of tear antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase and enzymes providing homeostasis of reduced glutathione (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase) were observed. All these alterations were protracted (up to 1-2 weeks) and therefore might account for transition of the perioperative DES into the chronic form. These findings can be useful in the development of novel approaches for the prevention and treatment of chronic forms of DES in the postanesthetic period.
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