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International Workshop on MGD

For those of you who are serious about following MGD research, IOVS' special issue covering the International Workshop is a must-read.

Click here for the contents page of IOVS special issue.

Just to give you an idea of the scope, here's an excerpt from Kelly Nichols' excellent Introduction:


There are rare occasions in a field of science when significant advances occur in leaps and bounds, rather than in small, deliberate steps. This moment is imminent in the field of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD)—and therefore in dry eye disease. The goals of the International Workshop on Meibomian Gland Dysfunction were twofold: first, to develop a consensus understanding of the meibomian gland in health and disease; second, to disseminate the knowledge broadly to further the field.

Over the past several years, although the body of knowledge about dry eye has been expanding, it has become clear that significant detail and direction relative to the impact of the meibomian gland in dry eye have been lacking. The Tear Film and Ocular Surface Society (TFOS;, a nonprofit organization, launched the International Workshop on Meibomian Gland Dysfunction ( in conjunction with generous industry sponsors that supported the workshop process through unrestricted grants, allowing volunteers to come together to plan, execute, translate, and present the findings of the workshop at a variety of meetings worldwide.


International workshops, such as the Dry Eye Workshop (DEWS) and this workshop on MGD, provide a consensus overview of the field as a snapshot in time. In addition to an exhaustive international literature–based review of the salient clinical, translational, and basic research, new concepts—often assimilated through the process of refining the reports—are also included here. Thus, this report is the most current, definitive summary of the meibomian gland in health and disease. As such, the objectives defined by the Steering Committee were as follows:

- to develop a contemporary understanding of the definition and classification of MGD;

- to conduct an evidence-based evaluation of meibomian gland structure and function in health and disease;

- to critically assess the structure of meibomian lipid and the interaction of the secreted lipid with additional components of the tear film;

- to evaluate the prevalence and associated risk factors for MGD;

- to assess methods of diagnosis, evaluation, and grading of severity of MGD;

- to evaluate existing recommendations and provide a diagnostic/therapeutic algorithm for the management and therapy of MGD;

- to evaluate existing clinical trials of pharmaceutical interventions for the treatment of MGD and provide recommendations for future clinical trial design; and

- to create an executive summary of recommendations for future research in MGD.