The Dry Eye Zone

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Abstract: Thyroid orbitopathy and Restasis

Topical cyclosporine in thyroid orbitopathy-related dry eye: clinical findings, conjunctival epithelial apoptosis, and MMP-9 expression.
Curr Eye Res. 2010 Sep;35(9):771-7.
Gürdal C, Genç I, Saraç O, Gönül I, Takmaz T, Can I.
Ankara Atatürk Training and Research Hospital, 2nd Ophthalmology Department, Ankara, Turkey.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of topical cyclosporine A (CsA) 0.05% (Restasis) on the signs and symptoms of dry eye, on apoptosis, and on MMP-9 expression in conjunctiva epithelial cells in thyroid orbitopathy (TO)-related dry eye patients.

METHODS: Prospective, clinical study. Twenty-four eyes of 12 consecutive TO patients with dry eye findings instilled CsA twice daily for 2 months. Ocular surface disease index, Schirmer tear test, tear breakup time (TBUT), conjunctival apoptosis index, and conjunctival MMP-9 expression were evaluated before and after 2 months treatment. Conjunctival biopsies were harvested from all eyes at baseline and after 2 months treatment. Apoptosis was detected by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. MMP-9 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry.

RESULTS: After 2 months of topical CsA treatment, the mean OSDI score was significantly decreased from 58.08 +/- 6.28 to 36.41 +/- 11.75 (P = 0.001). At baseline, the mean Schirmer tear test score was 8.92 +/- 5.52 mm. It was increased to 11.25 +/- 4.71 mm after treatment (P > 0.05). The mean TBUT increased significantly from 3.92 +/- 2.18 sec to 9.16 +/- 3.34 sec (P = 0.001). The mean percentage of apoptosis index at baseline was 72.10 +/- 35.82%. This was significantly decreased to 53.29 +/- 34.46% after treatment (P = 0.008). The mean percentage of MMP-9 expression of the conjunctival epithelial cells was significantly decreased from 48.12 +/- 28.58% to 26.66 +/- 25.13% following treatment (P = 0.005).

CONCLUSIONS: Topical CsA treatment appears to improve the signs and symptoms of dry eye and inhibits apoptosis and MMP-9 expression in conjunctival epithelial cells in TO-related dry eye patients after 2 months of treatment.